Hot Work / Guniting


What is Hot Gunning?

Hot Work is defined as any practice that could cause an ignition when flammable material is present, or can potentially create a fire hazard in the workplace, even if there is no flammable material present.

Plant fires are frequently caused by repairs started in haste without proper hot work permits and preparation, in areas not intended for this type of specialized work, or in places where proper housekeeping and maintenance, etc. have not been taking place. Gold Coast Refractory has the necessary training, professionalism and know-how to avoid this scenario completely, and help you meet the hot work requirements for your company in a safe, efficient and cost-conscious manner. The services we provide to assist with this can run the gamut from our Quarterly Maintenance Inspections to the Hot Work itself.

Gold Coast Refractory Service can handle many common hot work practices include welding, brazing, soldering, cutting, using fire or spark generating equipment, burning or any work that may produce a source of ignition. Among other areas, these welding and cutting processes are routinely seen in drilling and servicing operations.

We can also ensure that, not only are our Hot Work personnel experienced and knowledgeable in the many areas of Hot Work, our workforce is also trained and re-trained in all pertinent safety procedures.

We will follow best practice handling of Hot Work in every aspect, and will regularly check for all relevant Hot Work conditions like flammable gases in work areas before beginning any Hot Work. Among the many potentially unsafe areas where ignitions can take place are fuel tanks, well heads, gas separators, mud tanks, batteries, or confined spaces where gases can accumulate.

Hazards may include and/or could be associated with the following:

  • Hot Work, Fire, and Explosive Hazards
  • Welding, Cutting and Brazing
  • Cylinder Storage
  • Grinding
  • Well Site Ignition Sources



Gunite is a building material which consists of a mixture of cement, sand, and water that is sprayed onto a mold or structure using a type of spray “gun”. The term gunite refers to when this dry product is pushed through the hose to the nozzle where there is water is injected just prior to the product being applied. Because thorough mixing of the water and dry ingredients is not possible in the nozzle, mixing is completed as the material impacts the receiving surface, through manipulation of the nozzle. This operation requires a nozzleman with skill and experience, especially in the case of thick or heavily reinforced areas. This nozzleman controls the nozzle that moves the concrete to the surface. The nozzle is controlled by hand on small jobs, for example the construction of small swimming pools. On larger projects, the nozzle can sometimes be held by mechanical arms where the nozzleman controls the operation by a hand-held remote control. Large aggregate is rarely used in this dry-mix process. This is where Gold Coast Refractory Service comes in. Big or small, we can help you handle both your gunite and shotcrete jobs, wherever and whenever.

Gunite was invented in 1907 and trademarked in 1909 by American taxidermist Carl Akeley to repair the crumbling facade of the Field Columbian Museum in Chicago (the old Palace of Fine Arts from the World's Columbian Exposition). In 1911, he was given a patent for his inventions, the "cement gun", the equipment used, and "gunite", the material produced.

The word gunite became the registered trade mark of Allentown, the oldest manufacturer of gunite equipment. Other manufacturers were thus compelled to use other terminology to describe the process such as shotcrete, pneumatic concrete, guncrete, etc. Shotcrete emerged as the most commonly used term after gunite and after the later development of the wet process came to be used for both methods.

Until the 1950s when the wet-mix process was devised, only the dry-mix process was used. In the 1960s, the alternative method for gunning by the dry method was devised with the development of the rotary gun, with an open hopper that could be fed continuously. Shotcrete is also a viable means and method for placing structural concrete.

Among others, Gunite offers some advantages over traditional concrete such as:

  • It will be placed and consolidated at the same time
  • Gunite normally maximum aggregate size of 3/8”, which helps to improve quality and manageability of the application
  • Shotcrete will adhere to surfaces better than regular concrete
  • Shotcrete can be used with steel fiber that will be used as a substitute for welded wire mesh
  • When steel fibers are used in shotcrete, enhanced strength and toughness are gained
  • It usually offers lower costs when compared to traditional concrete

Gold Coast Refractory Service can review your plans and make suggestions regarding your specific requirements. We have trained and experienced Gunite nozzlemen available whenever the need arises. Please just let us know what we can do to help.